19 July 2010

This day in Jewish History

From tonight until tommorow observant Jews will endure the 25 hour fast of Tisha B'Av. Tisha B'Av means, simply, the 9th day of the Hebrew month of Av.

Why is there a fast? The Mishnah explains:

On the ninth of Av it was decreed that our ancestors should not enter the Holy Land, the first and the second Temples were destroyed, Betar was taken, and the City of Jerusalem was plowed over.

Ta'anit 4:6 (26b). Since the completion of the Talmud in the 5th and 6th centuries CE, calamitous events have continued to befall the Jewish people on the 9th of Av. On the 9th of Av in 1290, King Edward I issued his decree expelling the Jews from England - a decree that would remain in effect until 1656 - and on the 9th of Av in 1492, the decree of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella expelling the Jews from Spain, issued back in March, took effect. The Nazis, well aware of the importance of this day, deliberately made their own additions to this list of calamities.


421 bce Destruction of First Temple by the Babylonians, under Nebuchadnezar. About 100,000 Jews killed during invasion. Exile of remaining Jews to Babylon and Persia.
70 Destruction of Second Temple by Romans, under Titus. Over 2,500,000 Jews die as a result of war. Over 1,000,000 Jews exiled to all parts of the Roman Empire. Over 100,000 Jews sold as slaves by Romans.  Jews killed and tortured in gladiatorial "games" and pagan celebrations.
132 Bar Kochba revolt crushed. Jewish city of Betar destroyed - over 100,00 Jews were killed by the Romans.
133 Turnus Rufus plows site of Temple. Romans build pagan city of Aelia Capitolina on site of Jerusalem.
1095 First Crusade declared by Pope Urban II. 10,000 Jews killed in first month of Crusade. Crusades bring death and destruction to thousands of Jews, totally obliterate many communities in Rhineland and France.
1290 Expulsion of Jews from England - Edward I (England), announced the expulsion of all the Jews. The expulsion came on Tisha B’Av, Jews had to pay their own passage. The Jews did not return to England until 1659. This was the first national expulsion of the Jews.
1306 Jews expelled from France.
1492 Inquisition in Spain and Portugal culminates in the expulsion of the Jews from the Iberian Peninsula that brought the death of countless Jews.
1716 Jews of Brussels were ordered expelled.
1914 Britain and Russia declare war on Germany. First World War begins, ultimately causing Second World War and Holocaust. 75% of all Jews in war zones. Jews in armies of all sides - 120,000 Jewish casualties in armies. Over 400 pogroms immediately following war in Hungary, Ukraine, Poland and Russia.
1942 Deportations from Warsaw Ghetto to the Treblinka concentration camp begin. "The first transport of 'deportees' left Malkinia on July 23, 1942, in the morning hours. It was loaded with Jews from the Warsaw ghetto. The train was made up of sixty closed cars, crowded with people. The car doors were locked from the outside, and the air apertures barred with barbed wire."
1994 The deadly bombing the building of the AMIA (the Jewish community center in Buenos Aires, Argentina) which killed 86 people and wounded some 300 others.

تنسيق-الكليات-لعام سكس نيك كس

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